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Dyspareunia painful sexual experience

What is Dyspareunia?

Dyspareunia is a term used to describe pain or discomfort experienced by women during or after the intimate experience. It is a condition that can affect women of all ages and backgrounds.  This pain can occur in the vaginal area, the pelvic region, or deep inside the abdomen, and it can range from mild to severe. Women who suffer from dyspareunia may avoid intimacy altogether, leading to feelings of guilt, shame, and frustration. 

Causes of Dyspareunia

Dyspareunia can stem from several physical, emotional, and environmental factors. Here, are some common causes:

  • Vaginal dryness: Insufficient lubrication can lead to painful friction during intercourse. Vaginal dryness may result from hormonal fluctuations, medications (such as antihistamines or antidepressants), or certain medical conditions.
  • Vaginal Infections: such as yeast infections or bacterial vaginosis, can cause inflammation and discomfort during intimacy.
  • Endometriosis, Pelvic inflammatory disease, Uterine fibroids, Ovarian cysts, Vaginismus, and Vulvodynia: these conditions encompass various gynecological issues that can cause pain and discomfort during intimacy. Each condition has unique causes and symptoms, making it crucial to receive an accurate diagnosis for appropriate treatment. Early intervention and ongoing medical care can help manage these conditions, improving a woman’s quality of life. 
  • Anxiety and stress: can manifest as physical pain during intimacy, leading to vaginal dryness or muscle tension, exacerbating the discomfort.
  • Relationship issues and past traumas: Unresolved conflicts, trust issues, poor communication, past abuse, or assault can lead to a painful intimate experience
  • Harsh soaps or vaginal washes: can worsen dyspareunia by disrupting the vaginal pH balance, causing irritation and inflammation, and stripping away natural lubrication. These products can alter the vagina’s slightly acidic environment, leading to harmful bacterial overgrowth and infections. Additionally, ingredients like fragrances, dyes, and aggressive surfactants can irritate the sensitive vaginal skin, resulting in redness, itching, and inflammation. Lastly, harsh soaps can remove essential vaginal secretions, leaving the tissue dry and increasing friction during intercourse, exacerbating painful sex.
  • Insufficient arousal: A lack of foreplay or inadequate arousal can contribute to vaginal dryness and discomfort during sex.

Symptoms of Dyspareunia

Every woman’s experience with dyspareunia is unique, and the specific symptoms, as well as their intensity, can vary widely. By gaining a better understanding of the different types of pain and their possible origins, you can more effectively seek appropriate treatments and solutions. Here are some common symptoms of dyspareunia:

  • Pain during penetration or thrusting:  Penetration pain, felt as a sharp, stinging, or burning sensation at the vaginal entrance, can result from inadequate lubrication.
  • Persistent pain during and after sex, or pain during orgasm: may arise from multiple causes. Infections, irritations, and allergies can lead to burning or aching sensations
  • Emotional symptoms: such as anxiety, stress, or feelings of inadequacy. These emotions can further exacerbate the pain, creating a vicious cycle that makes intimacy even more challenging to enjoy.

Solutions for Dyspareunia

Finding relief from dyspareunia may require a multifaceted approach that addresses the unique combination of factors contributing to your pain. Here are some potential solutions for dyspareunia:

  • Lubricants and moisturizers: Lubricants and vaginal moisturizers play a crucial role in addressing dyspareunia, particularly when the pain is caused by vaginal dryness, insufficient lubrication, or friction during intercourse. By providing additional moisture and reducing friction, these products can significantly improve comfort and pleasure during sex. Here’s a more in-depth look at how lubricants and moisturizers can help alleviate, reduce, and treat dyspareunia:
    • Immediate relief from friction: Lubricants are designed to be applied directly before or during sexual activity to provide instant lubrication. This added moisture reduces friction between the vagina and the penis, fingers, or sex toys, minimizing the risk of irritation, abrasions, or tearing of the delicate vaginal tissues. Reduced friction makes penetration and thrusting more comfortable, easing pain and discomfort during intercourse.
    • Compensating for insufficient natural lubrication: While the vagina naturally produces lubrication during arousal, various factors can interfere with this process, including hormonal fluctuations, stress, medications, or age. Lubricants can compensate for the lack of natural lubrication, ensuring that the vaginal tissues remain moist and protected during sex.
    • Long-lasting moisture with vaginal moisturizers: Vaginal moisturizers are designed to provide longer-lasting moisture and can be applied regularly, even when you’re not engaging in sexual activity. These products help maintain optimal vaginal moisture levels and tissue elasticity, preventing dryness and irritation that can contribute to dyspareunia.
    • Enhancing arousal and pleasure: Lubricants and moisturizers can also enhance arousal and pleasure during sex by reducing discomfort and making it easier to engage in various sexual activities. Some lubricants are even formulated with added ingredients like warming or cooling agents to heighten sensation and further improve the sexual experience.
    • Supporting the vaginal environment: Many water-based lubricants and vaginal moisturizers are pH-balanced to match the natural acidity of the vagina, which is essential for maintaining a healthy vaginal environment. By supporting the natural pH balance, these products can help protect against infections and irritations that can exacerbate dyspareunia.

Hyaluronic Acid and Chamomile Extract

Hyaluronic acid and chamomile extract are both natural remedies that have been shown to alleviate vaginal dryness and improve lubrication, providing relief for women experiencing dyspareunia. Here, we’ll examine the scientific evidence and clinical studies supporting the use of these two substances for addressing vaginal dryness and insufficient lubrication:

Hyaluronic Acid:

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a naturally occurring substance in the body that plays a crucial role in maintaining hydration and tissue elasticity. It has a unique capacity to retain water, making it an effective moisturizer and lubricant. In recent years, hyaluronic acid has gained attention as a potential treatment for vaginal dryness and insufficient lubrication.

A study published in the Journal of Clinical Medicine Research in 2014 investigated the efficacy of hyaluronic acid vaginal gel in postmenopausal women with symptoms of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. The study found that, after 30 days of treatment, the participants experienced significant improvements in vaginal dryness, itching, and dyspareunia. The researchers concluded that hyaluronic acid vaginal gel was effective in reducing vaginal dryness and related symptoms in postmenopausal women (1).

Another study published in Maturitas in 2013 compared the use of a hyaluronic acid vaginal gel with estrogen therapy for the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. The study demonstrated that both the hyaluronic acid gel and estrogen therapy were effective in improving vaginal dryness, with hyaluronic acid showing a more rapid onset of action (2).

Chamomile Extract:

Chamomile extract is derived from the flowers of the chamomile plant and is well-known for its soothing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Its potential benefits for vaginal health have also been explored in scientific research.

A study published in the Journal of the Turkish-German Gynecological Association in 2015 examined the effects of a chamomile extract vaginal gel on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. The study found that the chamomile gel was effective in reducing vaginal dryness, itching, and inflammation, as well as improving vaginal pH and maturation index (3).


1. Chen, J., Geng, L., Song, X., Li, H., Giordan, N., & Liao, Q. (2014). Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Hyaluronic Acid Vaginal Gel to Ease Vaginal Dryness: A Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled, Open-Label, Parallel-Group, Clinical Trial. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, 6(4), 286–295.

2. Stute, P., Böcker, D., Graziottin, A., Panay, N., & Ceausu, I. (2013). Non-hormonal treatment of vaginal atrophy with hyaluronic acid: A clinical study. Maturitas, 76(3), 220–224.

Döğer, E., Çalışkan, E., Koçoğlu, H., & Toğrul, C. (2015). The effect of a chamomile vaginal gel on the vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Turkish-German Gynecological Association, 16(4), 225–229.


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